China has seen a sharp increase in patents and published papers, but few have commercial relevance.20 The report indicates that “China has relatively few high-impact scientific activities in any field,” and that the “quantity [of patents] has not been matched by the quality of the patents.”21, The centerpiece of China’s innovation effort, the so-called ‘indigenous innovation” initiative, emphasizes the exertion of commercial leverage against foreign firms to induce the transfer of technology that will be “absorbed, assimilated, and re-innovated” with Chinese intellectual property—arguably not, availability quality and size of incentives, due to concerns about the inadequacy of intellectual property protection in that country.”. 303 Heike Belitz, Marius Clemens, Martin Gornig, Florian Mölders, Alexander Schiersch, and Dieter Schumacher, “After the Crisis: German R&D-Intensive Industries in a Good Position,” DIW, promoting wide dissemination of environmental technologies have enabled German companies to capture 16 percent of world trade in that sector, which employs 1.5 million in Germany. construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This paper can be accessed at http://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.377100.de/diw_econ_bull_2011-02-1.pdf. •    Establishment of a high-level Enterprise Board and innovation fund at each university. local governments assumed operating control, and universities were given more management autonomy. SOURCE: United Nations Statistics Division, National Accounts Main Aggregates Database at http://unstats.un.org/unsd/snaama/selbasicFast.asp. A leading producer of generic drugs, Piramal has expanded manufacturing in the United Kingdom, Canada, China, and the U.S., where it has three plants employing 1,000 workers. Access to natural resources that are restricted from competitors; Highly skilled labor; A unique geographic location ; Access to new or proprietary technology Intangible Assets According to … Tekes tends to divide its funds between established R&D projects that can involve multiple companies and universities and unsolicited project proposals. But the Experts Commission notes that Germany is one of few industrial nations that do not offer a tax credit for R&D. Each university creates its own portfolio of industry-oriented projects. Such national strategies require attention of top political leadership, coordination of government agencies, sustained funding, and collaboration with stakeholders at the regional and local level. 204 See presentation by Ramesh Mashelkar of the Council of Scientific Industrial Research in India’s Changing Innovation System. By 2050, greenhouse gasses are to be 80 percent below 1990 levels, while renewable sources will account for 60 percent of total consumption and 80 percent of electricity generation.330, To achieve those goals, there are detailed “fields of action.” They include investing aggressively in renewable sources such as offshore wind power and bioenergy; expanding nuclear energy and promoting clean coal-fired plants; upgrading the national power grid; research and incentive programs to promote energy efficiency in industry, buildings, and households; aggressively promoting green transportation; and expanding R&D in innovative new energy technologies. In India, foreign companies cited new outsourcing opportunities and access to highly skilled labor as the biggest reason they invest there.230. Often this will include partners in international markets of … National spending on R&D has risen by an average of 19 percent a year since 1998,3 and in under a decade has grown from less than one percent of GDP to 1.7 percent.4 China’s share of global R&D spending soared from 6 percent in 1999 to 12 percent in 2010.5, By virtually every conventional benchmark—successful patent applications, scientific publications, post-graduate degrees awarded, and global market share in high-tech goods—China’s progress in science and technology has been solid. By 2006, Canadian productivity was at 73.7 percent of the U.S. level, the lowest level since the 1950s.440 The International Institute for Management Development ranks Canada 24 among 33 advanced economies in productivity growth.441 A report by the Council of Canadian Academies concluded that “Canada has a serious productivity growth problem.”442 As a result, “economists are increasingly focusing on a lack of innovation in Canada as a contributor to poor productivity performance,” reported the Science and Technology and Innovation Council in its report State of the Nation 2010.443. These agencies also pooled resources into a national network called TechnologieAllianz e. V., which provides services to 200 scientific institutions with more than 100,000 scientists.344. Criminal sanctions have been raised, and the scope of invention that is patentable has been greatly broadened.489. The government also launched an initiative in the mid-1990s to establish a network of “centers of excellence” to create research partnerships in advanced technologies, engineering and manufacturing, life sciences, environmental technologies, and natural resources. The rapid transformation of the global innovation landscape presents tremendous challenges as well as important opportunities for the United States. Image: Global Competitiveness Report 2018, World Economic Forum “The US features in the top three in seven categories, including in innovation, business dynamism and entrepreneurial culture,” Geiger said. As more and more firms operate internationally, the search for the elements of global competitive advantage is a prominent theme in the management literature (Dickman & Müller-Camen, 2006: 580). The Agency for Science, Technology, and Research (A*STAR) leads many of the programs aimed at making Singapore a global R&D base. 340 From presentation by Bernhard Milow of German Aerospace Center energy program in Nov. 1, 2010, “Meeting Global Challenges” symposium in Washington. 158 Evey Y. Zhou and Bob Stembridge, “Patented in China: The Present and Future State of Innovation in China,” Thompson Reuters, 2010. The competitiveness strategy can be traced to the 1979 and 1980 reports of the Joint Economic Committee, chaired by Senator Lloyd Bentsen. 51, No. 361 For an analysis of ZIM, see European Commission, ZIM, the Central Programme for SMEs (Zentrales Innovationsprogramm Mittelstand), PRO INNO Europe, INNO-Partnering Forum, Document ID: IPF 11-005, 2010. 179 National Research Council, S&T Strategies of Six Countries, op. 4 maker of wireless handsets, most of them sold under the private labels of carriers like Vodaphone, T-Mobile, and Verizon. But it had little experience with marketing, mass production, finance, and entrepreneurship.80, In 1999, 242 central level research institutes under 10 industry bureaus were transferred into enterprises. 180 European Commission Enterprise Directorate-General, INNO-Policy Trend Chart Innovation Policy Progress Report: India 2009. 43 From presentation by Thomas R. Howell in Innovation Policies for the 21st Century, op. 7 in innovation and No. The index is an annual yardstick for policy-makers to look beyond short-term and reactionary measures . 344 TechnologieAlliance Web site, http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=de&u=http://www.technologieallianz.de/&ei=EJsTfHgJ8Tk0QGujdmWDQ&sa=X&oi=translate&ct=result&resnum=6&sqi=2&ved=0CD4Q7gEwBQ&prev=/search%3Fq%3DGermany%2BTechnologieAlliance%2Be.%26hl%3Den%26prmd%3Divns. 306 Federal Ministry of Education and Research, data. Access at http://english.unirule.org.cn/Html/Events/20110308200838427.html. The commission also notes that many German scientists leave the country after they graduate, while not many foreign scientists move to Germany. Therefore, the government “has made new-generation IT development a core priority,” he said.79, The Shifting Role of Research Institutions. The speed of trends is breathtaking and increasingly complicated – and there is a need for the public sector to provide greater levels of support to facilitate economic growth. 96 QS World University Rankings 2010/2011 (http://www.topuniversities.com/universityrankings/world-university-rankings). ITRI and ERSO also helped launch many of Taiwan’s integrated-circuit design companies firms that sprang up around the foundries. ITRI also was pivotal to the development of Taiwan’s personal computer industry. In 2008, this unit was folded into the Japan Finance Corporation, whose small- and medium-sized business unit provided ¥20 trillion in support in 2009.493. India also has several large initiatives to boost its global standing in strategic science and technologies areas. 143 Reuters, “China Eases Government Procurement Rules After U.S. Pressure,” June 29, 2011. In terms of elite institutions, the government plans to increase the number of Indian Institutes of Technology from nine to sixteen, add five Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research, six Institutes of Management, and 20 Indian Institutes of Informational technology. Said one: “I don’t think there is a single success. At a time when the U.S. is struggling to maintain funding for current programs, China is providing the financial resources and policy support needed to build a 21st century innovation system. 198 Details on Bhuvan can be accessed on the NRSC Web site (http://bhuvan.nrsc.gov.in). That would require research investment to triple. Applied research was the responsibility of thousands of research institutes controlled by central ministries and provincial governments, while state enterprises developed products. Developed in collaboration with MIT and China’s Zhejiang University, the university will have a multi-disciplinary curriculum and research programs. FIGURE 5.7 Taiwan’s R&D expenditures increased to 2.94 percent of GDP in 2009. (June 2011). cit. 63 Matthew Dalton, “EU Finds China Gives Aid to Huawei, ZTE,” Wall Street Journal, Feb. 3, 2011. “They narrow the gap between Japanese high science and technology potential and low industrial performance to help strengthen the innovation capability of Japanese industry.” However, Mr. Kondo said, Japanese universities bring in only a fraction of the licensing revenues of American universities. Instead, initiatives are owned and managed by government bureaucracies that “suffer from complex, overlapping structures for policy making and decision making.”182, India now is undertaking a number of initiatives to transform its innovation system.183 As the Planning Commission’s steering committee on science and technology explained in its report for the current Five-Year Plan, a “strong and vibrant innovation ecosystem” requires an education system that nurtures creativity, an R&D culture and value system that supports both basic research and applied technology, an industry culture that is keen to equity and foreign companies that can be involved.184. Working closely with domestic companies, well-staffed industrial research institutes then turn those technologies into prototypes and production processes that are disseminated widely through industry.254 “Taiwan’s miracle is based on government-promoted industries and private domestic firms,” observes Massachusetts Institute of Technology political economist Alice Amsden. The alliance, which has a €900 million research budget, seeks to create. 100 Xue, “Universities in China’s National Innovation System,” op. The Freedom of Science Act gives these institutions more latitude to manage their own financial resources. 244 According to U.S. Patent and Trademark Office data, Taiwan is No. 342 See Federal Ministry of Education and Research and Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, Knowledge Creates Markets: Action Scheme of the German Government, March 2001 (http://www.bmbf.de/pub/wsm_englisch.pdf). The chip is said to be capable of holding 15 billion transistors that can process 10 times more data than current 45 nm technology and radically reducing the size of circuit boards.256. The innovation agendas and precise policies differ from country to country, based on national needs and aspirations. It is reportedly planning to set up an electronics development fund (EDF) to promote R&D in electronics.225 Minister of Finance Pranab Mukherjee proposed in March 2012 that India’s weighted deduction of 200% for R&D expenditures—one of the highest in the world—be extended from 2012 for another five years226. A market structure with many companies and with few differences between product quality and characteristics. Google, Sun, Procter & Gamble, and Microsoft are among the multinationals with large R&D centers. The company has licensed drug candidates to Eli Lilly and other Western pharmaceutical companies and has new biological entities in clinical testing that are potential treatments for asthma, diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis. The key environmental issues concern the nature of the pressure for change and the speed at which the organization must be able to respond an act. To obtain the cutting-edge components needed for Tata Motors’ innovative $2,500 small passenger car, the Nano, its affiliate Tata Auto Component Systems (TACO) formed 16 global partnerships, including. 241 Id. cit. In 2007, the ministry launched the Top Cluster competition in which industryled strategic partnerships around Germany vied for €200 million in BMBF funds. Government research funding also tends to flow to a handful of top schools. Since such a large share of Taiwanese R&D is conducted at Academia Sinica, national laboratories, and industrial research institutes, the Council regards such rules are major obstacles to commercialization and recommends that they be eased. The council is chaired by Finland’s prime minister and includes five cabinet ministers and representatives from industry, unions, and academia. 416 From remarks by Rudy Aernoudt, then Secretary-General of the Flemish Department of Economics, Science, and Bruno de Vuyst of the Free University of Brussels in Innovative Flanders. 44 The initial fields covered in the 863 program were biotechnology, space, information technology, automation, energy, and new materials. © 2021 National Academy of Sciences. Universities are home to 60 percent of China’s “national pilot laboratories,” nearly two-thirds of its 140 “national key laboratories,” and 26 national engineering laboratories. Engineers based in different nations collaborated around the clock. These conditions permit the entity to generate more sales or greater margins than its competition. Zoomlion, formerly a research institute of the Ministry of Construction, now is China’s leading manufacturer of construction equipment, with 2010 sales of $7.8 billion. sector, or technology area. Its mission is to develop multidisciplinary talent and perform demand-driven research for industry and government, with an emphasis on health care. 7 Xinhua News Service, “China 2010 International Patent Filings up 56.2%,” China Daily, Feb. 2, 2011. Richard W. Carney and Loh Yi Zheng blame institutional “disincentives,” such as heavy government financial and management control over major Singapore corporations and small capital markets that make it hard for entrepreneurs to raise private risk capital and publicly float successful companies. cit. Constraints on Innovation in China, China’s massive investments in technological infrastructure, science education, and research programs are key elements in laying the foundation for an innovation economy. “Without organizational innovation, there cannot be technological innovation,” he said. FIGURE 5.12 Finland’s R&D intensity reached 4 percent in 2009 before declining slightly to 3.9 percent in 2010. 122 Data from Lan Xue, “China’s Innovation Policy in the Context of national Innovation System Reform,” Tsinghua University, Aug. 27, 2007 (http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/60/62/39310514.pdf). This report can be downloaded at http://www.proinnoeurope.eu/trendchart/annual-country-reports. Japan has taken a number of actions since the mid-90s to improve its innovation system, many of them inspired by the United States.473 Japan has strengthened protection of intellectual property, overhauled science and technology policy institutions, enacted its own version of the Bayh-Dole Act to make it easier for universities and research laboratories to commercialize technology, and bolstered industry and academic science partnerships.474 Japan. They will offer doctorate programs and be based at existing institutions.195, India has big ambitions in nanotechnology. their own research priorities by separating them from the civil-service system. China’s current innovation system began with reforms launched by Deng Xiaoping in 1978. Global business is characterized by the free flow of human and financial resources especially in the developed economies of European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), other regional groupings such as the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), the Economic Community of West African Sta… 477 Lee Branstetter and Yoshiaki Nakamura, “Is Japan’s Innovation Capacity in Decline?” National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 9438, January 2003. Getting universities to play a far bigger role in India’s innovation ecosystem and upgrade their standards are other top goals. FIGURE 5.3 While trade data indicate that the United States imported $2 billion of iPhones from China in 2009, only an estimated three percent of the value-added was from China. Of the 120 million units it expects to ship in 2012, 18 percent are expected to be smart phones.111, Breakthrough innovation remains a challenge for ZTE’s handset business. 324 See presentation by Roland Schindler, executive director of Fraunhofer, in November 1, 2010, “Meeting Global Challenges: U.S.-German Innovation Policy” symposium in Washington, op. 160 See Mu Rongping, Song Hefa, and Chen Fang, “Innovative Development and Innovation Capacity-Building in China,” International Journal of Technology Management, Vol. Market and competitive environment. 210 In China, for example, industry performs around two-thirds of R&D.211, Nevertheless, top Indian companies have demonstrated an impressive capacity and desire to innovate in the two decades since they have been freed of the restraints of the country’s once-onerous industrial licensing system.212 Enterprise R&D leapt by seven-fold between 1991 and 2004.213 A survey of Indian companies in 2006 found that 40 percent had developed a major new product and 62 percent had upgraded an existing product lines, much higher than in China and at about the same level as in the Republic of Korea.214 In a survey of 83 top manufacturing executives, 82 percent said they believed that generating organic growth through innovation is essential for success.215. •    A national center for innovation studies that will propose policies and initiatives to encourage innovation in the public and private sectors.288, It is too early to fully assess the success of Singapore’s innovation initiatives. 3 in innovation and No. “Promotion of forward-looking, outstanding, interdisciplinary basic research in science and environmental science, biology, and engineering, etc.”. 213 Data cited in Dutz and Dahlman, op. The EFI also contends that Germany’s tax system must become more innovation-friendly.317. Whereas costs had once been no consideration, now time and costs are “sacrosanct,” he said. Since the financial crisis in 2008, the U.S. economy and businesses have struggled to recover from the greatest economic crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s. “Indigenous innovation has been bashed down and killed for now,” the executive said. http://www.innovationsindikator.de/fileadmin/user_upload/Dokumente/summary2009.pdf. A*STAR spearheads efforts to develop clusters in high value-added manufacturing, such as microelectronics, new materials, chemicals, and information and communications equipment, and the rapidly growing biomedical sector.284 The agency also manages Singapore’s ambitious new multibillion-dollar science parks, Biopolis and Fusionopolis, which combine a high concentration of public and corporate research organizations in a contemporary urban setting. The study rated Germany No. Coming at a time when other nations were cutting back such spending in the face of recession, the major commitment to innovation represented “a paradigm shift of some importance” for Germany, explained Rainer Jäkel, director general for technology and innovation policy at the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi).307, The government also has been implementing a wide range of policies and programs to improve its innovation system. All rights reserved. The Council of Scientific Industrial Research, which controls 38 national laboratories and many research institutes, began reforms a decade ago to improve their performance and economic. The Flemish Innovation Cooperative Ventures program supports collective research. General Electric is one multinational that has made Indian talent integral to its global innovation activities. 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