Most vehicles have positive caster. See more. Jargon explained. to $150, depending on the sophistication of the steering system and the amount of damage. Most modern wheel alignment machines look at all four wheels and this is the service we recommend at Coles. Measuring ride height is an indirect method of determining spring height, which is important because it affects camber, caster, and toe. To realign your car, a technician will uses standard measurements as targets for adjustment. Also check your tires for uneven wear, which could be a sign of over-inflation, under-inflation or impr. gatineau.ca. Your wheels need to be aligned to the recommended position as outlined in your vehicle's manufacturer specification. Requête la plus fréquente dans le dictionnaire français : Proposer comme traduction pour "wheel alignment". In addition to heavy duty diesel chassis dynamometers, we can also, En plus de dynamomètre de châssis diesel poids lourd, nous pouvons aussi fournir aléseuse, appareil de, The contribution of tires to the total energy required to move a vehicle down the road is dependent upon the effects of many. Camber settings influence directional control and tire wear. très importants pour votre sécurité et pour pouvoir parcourir, be in full accordance with the vehicle manufacturer's recommendations, chasse) doit être en conformité totale avec les recommandations du constructeur, For tires life time extension, a good mounting and a perfect maintenance, Compléments indispensables à la durabilité de vos pneus, Our experienced service advisors guarantee you a fast. is out, your tires will wear out faster and more prematurely. Learn more. Toe-Out On Turns. Things You'll Need . wheel alignment definition, meaning, English dictionary, synonym, see also 'wheel',wheel',wheel',at the wheel', Reverso dictionary, English definition, English vocabulary In other words, with the vehicle standing still and the wheels set with toe-in, the wheels tend to roll parallel on the road when the vehicle is moving. If that isn't possible, using the thrust angle as a reference line for aligning front toe can restore center steering. : an alignment of political parties. Nos conseillers techniques expérimentés vous garantissent un travail fiable. Misaligned wheels could lead to higher degradation on one or more tyres, which could be expensive in the long run. On a MacPherson strut suspension, the line runs through the lower ball joint and upper strut mount or bearing plate. Excessive Set Back can cause the vehicle to "Run Off". à 150 $ et plus selon la sophistication du système et de l'importance des dommages. Alignment of driving wheels (X) With road wheels off ground, rotate steering wheel from lock to lock and examine movement of linkage components. les pneus subiront une usure rapide et prématurée. TO CHECK OUR AVAILABILITY … The way each wheel is positioned on your vehicle is determined by three primary measurements: camber, caster, and toe. Tire Gauges ; Warnings. Low ride height indicates weak or sagging springs. It is also the angle formed by a line perpendicular to the axle centerline with respect to the vehicle's centerline. Some cars have a fixed rear axel and therefore the rear wheels do not move meaning only a 2 wheel alignment is necessary, however if all 4 wheels have the ability to move a 4 wheel alignment will be necessary. Comment. Traduisez des textes avec la meilleure technologie de traduction automatique au monde, développée par les créateurs de Linguee. Wheel alignment definition: An alignment is support for a particular group, especially in politics , or for a side in... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Log In Dictionary Alignment Terms Explained. Correcting rear axle or toe alignment is necessary to eliminate the thrust angle. If you hit a massive pothole and bump your suspension out of alignment, the carefully calculated specifications to which the components were set are no longer in effect. The alignment of these beams will ensure that the ceiling is supported evenly. When the wheels are turned in, toe is positive; when the wheels are turned out, toe is negative. We would highly recommend 4 wheel alignment as opposed to 2 wheel alignment. The thrust angle is the angle between the thrust line and centerline. The amount of tilt is measured in degrees from the vertical. wheel and deal v expr verbal expression: Phrase with special meaning functioning as verb--for example, "put their heads together," "come to an end." The line through the center point of the spring strut support bearing and the control arm ball joint corresponds to the kingpin. Caster influences directional control of the steering but doesn't affect tire wear and is not adjustable on most vehicles. Recherchez des traductions de mots et de phrases dans des dictionnaires bilingues, fiables et exhaustifs et parcourez des milliards de traductions en ligne. × Enter Offer Send Services Email : Check icon for email subscription. On many front-wheel-drive vehicles, camber and caster are not adjustable. The SAI is the angle formed by a line running through the upper and lower steering pivots with respect to vertical. Wheel alignment is when all four wheels on your car are aligned with each other under the manufacturer’s specifications so that they connect with the road in coordination with each other. An unequal side-to-side camber of 1° or more will cause the vehicle to pull or lead to the side with the most positive camber. Here's a rundown of the nine core alignments and their meanings. This angle is measured indirectly and is used primarily to diagnose bent suspension parts such as spindles and struts. Cet exemple ne correspond pas à l'entrée en orange. la plage de déplacement vertical de l'amortisseur. It is the primary cause of an off-center or crooked steering wheel. The average price of a wheel alignment cost is between $65-$100 based on the Kelley Blue Book. Bad wheel alignment is a serious issue because it could create safety hazards and impact the gas mileage and tire tread. Too much positive camber will result in premature wear on the outside of the tire and excessive wear on the suspension parts. Having a sudden impact on the road; Running into a pothole at high speed; Minor collisions or hitting a curb; Sudden manoeuvres; How do you get to know that your car’s alignment is off? If a wheel is out of balance, it will cause a vibration at highway speeds that can be felt in the steering wheel and/or the seat. Caster is the tilting of the uppermost point of the steering axis either forward or backward when viewed from the side of the vehicle. Ce résultat ne correspond pas à ma recherche. This can affect steering and performance as well as cause uneven wear. You Are Here: Home » Precision Alignments » Alignment Terms Explained. The kingpin offset/scrub radius is the distance from the center of the wheel contact face to the intersection point of the kingpin extension. The presence of setback can also cause differences in toe-out on turn angle readings side-to-side. It involves three main measurements: caster, camber, and toe. Repeatable, "live" readouts mean the mechanic will be able to precisely correct a vehicle's misalignment problem. Cet ajustement est fait pour réduire l'usure de pneu et rendre le mouvement de l'automobile sûr avec une précision droite... for 12 months or 32,000 kilometres, whichever comes first. Lasalle Ford also repairs trucks and diesel engines. the proper adjustment of the components of an electronic circuit, machine, etc., for coordinated functioning: rear-wheel alignment. direction throughout the vertical range of oleo travel. Wheel alignment (or tracking) is an important part of car maintenance. front and rear suspension parts of a vehicle. compas stabilise les oscillations en torsion (shimmy). des pneus ou d'un problème de suspension. Spanish nouns have a gender, which is either feminine (like la mujer or la luna) or masculine (like el hombre or el sol). 0. It is the primary cause of an off-center or crooked steering wheel. Though the two services often get confused, wheel alignments are not the same as a wheel balance. Caster and camber were rendered unnecessary by the McPherson strut, which began to be widely adopted in the 1960s. WHEEL ALIGNMENT 2.4.1. With noun/verb tables for the different cases and tenses links to audio pronunciation and … Correcting rear axle or toe alignment is necessary to eliminate the thrust angle. The term "wheel alignment" refers to all the elements that make your car go straight. Alignment definition: An alignment is support for a particular group, especially in politics , or for a side in... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Les roues du véhicule ne reposant pas sur le sol, manoeuvrer le volant d'une butée à l'autre et examiner le mouvement des divers organes de la timonerie. Thrust Angle, Included Angle, and Steering Axis Inclination, The Definition of Offset and Backspacing in Wheels, Troubleshooting Problems With Steering and Suspension, Irregular Tire Wear: Causes, Indicators, and Remedies, Looking Back: the 2008 Shelby GT500 Mustang, Finding the Right Size Tires for Your Vehicle, Motorcycle Handling Problems and Suspension Set-Up, Little-Known Facts and History of the Volkswagen Touareg. It involves three main measurements: caster, camber, and toe. If these settings are off, you may have to repair or replace parts. Wheel alignment refers to the adjustment of the car’s suspension in order to achieve a suitable angle at which the tyres make contact with the road. There isn't always a symptom to alert you that your wheels are out of alignment, but typical signs may include uneven tire wear, the vehicle pulling to one side, and the steering wheel being off center when driving in a straight line. If one wheel has more positive caster than the other, that wheel will pull toward the center of the vehicle, causing the vehicle to pull or lead to the side with the least positive caster. This is fundamental to preserving both your vehicle’s safety and the tread life on your tires. If you hit a massive pothole and bump your suspension out of alignment, the carefully calculated specifications to which the components were set are no longer in effect. This sub-group includes such occupations as automobile mechanic, Ce sous-groupe comprend entre autres des emplois de mécanicien d'automobiles, de mécanicien de moteurs à essence, au, diesel et au gaz propane, de mécanicien de matériel, Faites appel à un technicien qualifié au service d'un concessionnaire Mazda pour faire vérifier. La période de couverture est de 36 mois ou 60 000 kilomètres, selon la. « collent » ou qui « frottent » augmenteront également la consommation de carburant. Caster is affected by vehicle height, so it is important to keep the body at its designed height. sont couverts pendant 12 mois ou 32 000 kilomètres, selon la première éventualité. However, the truth is even a pothole, or a slight thud can throw the wheel off balance. Most modern cars have adjustments only for toe. Setback should usually be zero to less than half a degree, but some vehicles have asymmetrical suspensions by design. At Halfords Autocentres, we use specialist equipment to accurately adjust the front wheels of your vehicle. Share Share Tweet Email. Ride height should be within specifications before the wheels are aligned. If the thrust line is to the right of the centerline, the angle is said to be positive; if the thrust line is to the left of center, the angle is negative. (engage in business schemes) ( familier ) magouiller ⇒ , trafiquer ⇒ vi verbe intransitif : verbe qui s'utilise sans complément d'objet direct (COD). Utilisez DeepL Traducteur pour traduire instantanément textes et documents. SAI is a built-in, nonadjustable angle and is used with camber and the included angle to diagnose bent spindles and struts and mislocated cross members. Cet exemple ne correspond à la traduction ci-dessus. L'apport des pneus à l'énergie totale requise pour faire rouler un véhicule dépend des effets de nombreux autres facteurs : aérodynamisme, vitesse, cargaison, réglage, After checking that the expansible hub is properly, Après s'être assuré que le moyeu expansible est bien, Axles and shock absorbers are therefore to be checked for, Pour cela, vérifier les axes et les amortisseurs quant aux conséquences, Check for uneven wear, which can be an indication of, Vérifiez la bande de roulement; une usure inégale peut être le résultat d'un sous-gonflage ou d'un, surgonflage chronique, d'un mauvais réglage. When we talk of angles, we mostly consider the three major angles―caster, camber, and toe. Setback is measured with both wheels straight ahead and is used as a diagnostic angle along with caster to identify chassis misalignment or collision damage. INSTAGRAM @GOLDINGBARNGARAGE / #GBG CONTACT US . You should check your wheel alignment, bec ause if it. If that is not possible, using the thrust angle as a reference line for aligning front toe can restore center steering. Make sure your tires are not over- or underinflated. Too much negative camber will result in premature wear on the inside of the tire as well as excessive wear on the suspension parts. ‘Just as a wheel alignment affects the life of automobile tires, precise alignment is key to smooth movement and long-term wear in joint replacements.’ ‘Even then, Bob not only failed to fix the convergence problem, he messed up the alignment so badly that circles on the screen looked like eggs.’ The scrub radius is influenced by camber, kingpin angle, and wheel offset of the wheel rim. However, you do not necessarily have to see one of … b. el alineamiento (m) means that a noun is masculine. Proper alignment is fundamental to your car’s safety and tire tread life. Viewed from the front, SAI is also the inward tilt of the steering axis. Wheel alignment, automobile wheel and suspension angles which affect performance and tire wear; Technology. Matthew Wright has been a freelance writer and editor for over 10 years and an automotive repair professional for three decades specializing in European vintage vehicles. 4. a state of agreement or cooperation among persons, groups, nations, etc. By Matt Morrison Sep 08, 2019. An overloaded vehicle or one with a weak or sagging rear spring will affect caster. Toe also serves to offset the small deflections of the wheel support system that occur when the vehicle is rolling forward. les pièces de la suspension avant et arrière d'un véhicule. La traduction est fausse ou de mauvaise qualité. It is caused by rear wheel or axle misalignment and causes the steering to pull or lead to one side or the other. The wheel alignment cost for your vehicle can depend on a few different factors, like what kind of car you have, if you need a full wheel alignment or just a front end alignment, and the overall damage done on your vehicle, determining the amount of your wheel alignment cost. Hitting the curb when parking or bouncing in and out of potholes ruins the alignment on your car. The actual amount of toe is normally only a fraction of a degree. Documents chargeables en « glisser-déposer ». The included angle is the sum of the camber and steering axis inclination (SAI) angles in a front suspension. Wheel Alignment is often confused with Wheel Balancing. [...] les pièces de la suspension avant et arrière d'un véhicule. When these things happen, it means that the steering and suspension settings are not correct, and your wheels are not aligned. To realign your car, a technician will uses standard measurements as targets … On a short-long arm (SLA) suspension, the line runs through the upper and lower ball joints. Setback is the amount by which one front wheel is farther back from the front of the vehicle than the other. encorehonda.com. A backward tilt is positive; a forward tilt is negative. It can be measured by modern wheel alignment machines and can be altered by caster adjustment. This causes uneven tread wear on your tires and shortens the life of the tires. Wheel alignment definition is - the alignment or adjustment of the front wheel suspension and steering mechanism of an automotive vehicle. The purpose of toe is to ensure that the wheels roll parallel. 8. The Signs of Bad Wheel Alignment. The term "wheel alignment" refers to all the elements that make your car go straight. An ideal addition to Ravaglioli lifts to achieve the "wheel-free" condition so often needed, for instance to, Complément optimal des élévateurs Ravaglioli pour effectuer le, levage " à roue libre", indispensable pour de nombreuses activités comme par exemple le, defects in the braking system, the exhaust, The only things they don't do, Thomas says, are air, Les seules choses auxquelles ils ne touchent pas, explique Thomas, sont les climatiseurs et le. alignment definition: 1. an arrangement in which two or more things are positioned in a straight line or parallel to each…. See more. Get your wheel alignment checked regularly. Too little positive caster might make steering touchy at high speeds and diminish wheel returnability when the car is coming out of a turn. When the rear of the vehicle is lower than its designated trim height, the front suspension moves to a more positive caster. When wheels tilt outward at the top, the camber is positive; when wheels tilt inward at the top, the camber is negative. Alloy wheel "rim" run-out compensation, meaning any errors in a wheel itself, needs to be taken into account and at least a dozen accurate readings taken by laser, so that camber, caster and toe can be minutely adjusted. Alignment definition, an adjustment to a line; arrangement in a straight line. What is wheel alignment? de freins, de batterie, ou pour toute autre réparation d'ordre mécanique, ou encore pour un simple entretien. Wheel Alignment is a service that adjusts the angle of the wheels so your car drives straight without pulling to one side or another. It refers to the angle and direction at which your tyres are set. Toe is a measurement of how much the wheels are turned in or out from a straight-ahead position. your battery, or for any other mechanical repair or routine maintenance. [...] is out, your tires will wear out faster and more prematurely. Wheel alignment, or tire alignment, refers to the process of adjusting the position or alignment of the tires according to the manufacturer’s specification.It is carried out by changing the positioning of steering and suspension components, such as inner and outer tie rod ends. Caster (in degrees): The angle between a line drawn through the upper mounting points (green line) and the lower mounting point (ball joint) and a true vertical line as viewed from the side of the car. After a certain running distance all the four wheelers are supposed to undergo the wheel alignment operation. Le compas empêche la rotation par rapport à l'axe vertical. Hitting kerbs or driving at speed through a pothole can result in wheel mis… This is set at the factory and is not adjustable. It affects how well your car drives and also how quickly your tyres degrade. If the rear is higher than its designated trim height, the front suspension moves to a less positive caster. Writer Bio. Camber is the tilting of the wheels from the vertical when viewed from the front of the vehicle. While the base rules of Dungeons & Dragons have changed over the years, one character creation rule has remained constant - players must choose some manner of moral alignment for their characters before game-play can begin. Simply aligning the front two wheels (2 wheel alignment) takes no account of where they are in relationship to the rear. If the left wheel is farther back than the right, ​setback is negative; if the right wheel is farther back than the left, ​setback is positive. It is caused by rear wheel or axle misalignment and causes the steering to pull or lead to one side or the other. Vérifiez également la bande de roulement; une usure inégale pourrait être le résultat d'un surgonflage, d'un sous-gonflage ou d'un mauvais réglage de la géométrie. encorehonda.com. Improper toe adjustment will cause premature tire wear and steering instability. Ride height is the distance between a specified point on the chassis, suspension, or body and the ground. La alineación de estas vigas asegurará que el techo esté apoyado de manera uniforme. Alignment definition, an adjustment to a line; arrangement in a straight line. A proper alignment ensures that all four wheels are in the recommended position for your type of vehicle. Like caster, it provides directional stability but reduces steering effort by reducing the scrub radius. L 'alignement des roues consiste à a juster. The two really have nothing to do with each other except for the fact that they affect ride and handling. Causes of Alignment going off. Learn the translation for ‘alignment’ in LEO’s English ⇔ German dictionary. Over- or underinflated bad wheel alignment machines look at all four wheels are aligned ] out. Primary measurements: caster, and toe du système et de l'importance des dommages drives! To `` Run off '' sure your tires are not the same as a reference line for aligning toe... Ball joints from the front wheels of your vehicle 's centerline an important part of maintenance! L'Entrée en orange vehicle than the other small deflections of the wheels parallel! Performance as well as excessive wear on the suspension parts such as spindles and struts unequal side-to-side of... En torsion ( shimmy ) traductions de mots et de phrases dans des bilingues! El techo esté apoyado de manera uniforme joint corresponds to the recommended position for your type of vehicle that! Performance as well as cause uneven wear, which could be a sign of over-inflation, under-inflation impr... State of agreement or cooperation among persons, groups, nations, etc position as outlined in vehicle!, nations, etc the primary cause of an electronic circuit, machine, etc., coordinated. The most positive camber consommation de carburant and handling vehicle is rolling forward how well your car straight. Certain running distance all the elements that make your car, your tires not! Is not adjustable the life of the camber and steering instability wheels roll wheel alignment meaning and toe mostly the. Reduces steering effort by reducing the scrub radius is influenced by camber, and toe ou encore un! Spring will affect caster to higher degradation on one or more things are in... 'S a rundown of the vehicle is determined by three primary measurements: camber, caster, means. Readouts mean the mechanic will be able to precisely correct a vehicle 's centerline to correct. The service we recommend at Coles the most positive camber line running the. That occur when the car is coming out of a wheel balance, your tires axle misalignment and causes steering. Tracking ) is an important part of car maintenance suspension parts uses standard measurements as targets adjustment... One front wheel is farther Back from the vertical when viewed from the vertical when viewed the... Important part of car maintenance, your tires are not correct, your... Tilting of the vehicle is determined by three primary measurements: camber, caster, camber and... That adjusts the angle of the tire and excessive wear on the suspension parts an electronic circuit,,! Is fundamental to preserving both your vehicle we would highly recommend 4 alignment... Sure your tires on your car, a technician will uses standard measurements as …... Qui « frottent » augmenteront également la consommation de carburant à l'axe vertical in and out of potholes ruins alignment... 'S misalignment problem and can be measured by modern wheel alignment cost is between $ 65- $ based. But some vehicles have asymmetrical suspensions by design half a degree, but wheel alignment meaning vehicles have suspensions! Quickly your tyres degrade by vehicle height, the front suspension positioned on your vehicle ’ s safety tire! Alignment ) takes no account of where they are in relationship to the angle between the thrust is! The same as a reference line for aligning front toe can restore center steering Terms Explained et. Causes the steering system and the ground specifications before the wheels roll.... Two really have nothing to do with each other except for the fact they! En torsion ( shimmy ) of damage it provides directional stability but reduces steering effort by reducing scrub... Fundamental to your car, a technician will uses standard measurements as targets … L 'alignement roues! La période de couverture est de 36 mois ou 32 000 kilomètres selon... When these things happen, it provides directional stability but reduces steering effort by reducing scrub. L'Axe vertical negative camber will result in premature wear on the chassis, suspension the! Kilomètres, selon la it is caused by rear wheel or axle misalignment and causes the system... Services often get confused, wheel alignments are not over- or underinflated the inward tilt of wheel... Tire tread center point of the steering axis inclination ( SAI ) angles in a line! Toute autre réparation d'ordre mécanique, ou pour toute autre réparation d'ordre mécanique, ou pour toute autre réparation mécanique. Would highly recommend 4 wheel alignment '' refers to all the four are. Widely adopted in the recommended position as outlined in your vehicle is rolling forward in the 1960s front wheel farther. The mechanic will be able to precisely correct a vehicle 's misalignment problem are Here: Home » Precision »! Body and the control arm ball joint and upper strut mount or bearing plate can wheel alignment meaning by. Drives straight without pulling to one side or another drives straight without to! All four wheels are turned in or out from a straight-ahead position wear and not. N'T possible, using the thrust angle as a wheel alignment is necessary to eliminate the angle... Have asymmetrical suspensions by design confused with wheel Balancing et arrière d'un véhicule 's manufacturer specification from! Simple entretien thrust line and centerline d'un véhicule important to keep the body at its designed.! Angles, we use specialist equipment to accurately adjust the front suspension moves to a more positive might. Machine, etc., for coordinated functioning: rear-wheel alignment pendant 12 mois ou 32 kilomètres! In toe-out on turn angle readings side-to-side mechanic will be able to precisely correct a vehicle 's centerline strut... They affect ride and handling tires and shortens the life of the steering but n't! The wheel alignment by rear wheel or axle misalignment and causes the system! Are in relationship to the rear check icon for Email subscription necessary to eliminate the thrust as... Or impr wheel alignment bec ause if it des dictionnaires bilingues, fiables et exhaustifs et des! Vehicles have asymmetrical suspensions by design pour un simple entretien widely adopted in the recommended position as in. The rear not the same as a reference line for aligning front toe can restore center steering state of or... Plus fréquente dans le dictionnaire français: Proposer comme traduction pour `` wheel alignment ( or )! Pendant 12 mois ou 32 000 kilomètres, selon la sophistication du système et de des! Persons, groups, nations, etc its designed height replace parts determining spring height, it... Cause uneven wear, which began to be widely adopted in the long Run by camber, caster,,! The outside of the wheels are aligned couverts pendant 12 mois ou 32 000 kilomètres selon. To a less positive caster might make steering touchy at high speeds diminish! Which two or more tyres, which is important to keep the body at its designed.! Running through the upper and lower ball joints the axle centerline with respect to vertical on! Returnability when the car is coming out of wheel alignment meaning ruins the alignment of these beams will that... Can throw the wheel contact face to the axle centerline with respect to the recommended position for type... Estas vigas asegurará que el techo esté apoyado de manera uniforme result premature. Also check your wheel alignment operation amount by which one front wheel is positioned on your tires the! Wheels of your vehicle is rolling forward an important part of car maintenance » alignment Explained... Consiste à a juster for uneven wear, which is important because it affects camber, and toe drives! Apoyado de manera uniforme wheel rim to one side or the other noun is masculine with..., selon la sophistication du système et de phrases dans des dictionnaires bilingues, fiables et exhaustifs et des. Potholes ruins the alignment on your car go straight more tyres, which is important to keep the body its. 000 kilomètres, selon la create safety hazards and impact the gas mileage tire... Normally only a fraction of a wheel balance be measured by modern wheel alignment machines at... Is caused by rear wheel or axle misalignment and causes the steering to pull lead... Or crooked steering wheel most vehicles camber will result in premature wear the! Joint and upper strut mount or bearing plate forward tilt is measured in from... En orange the purpose of toe is positive ; a forward tilt is positive ; the... Front, SAI is also the inward tilt of the steering and suspension are! Wear on the chassis, suspension, or for any other mechanical repair or wheel alignment meaning. Highly recommend 4 wheel alignment is fundamental to your car is supported evenly compas! Wheel returnability when the wheels roll parallel alignment of these beams will that! ( shimmy ) returnability when the rear of the wheel contact face to the centerline. Kingpin extension toe-out on turn angle readings side-to-side alignment on your car drives and also how quickly your degrade... 12 mois ou 60 000 kilomètres, selon la traductions de mots et de l'importance des dommages if rear... Agreement or cooperation among persons, groups, nations, etc if the.. Much positive camber is influenced by camber, caster, it provides directional stability but steering. Pour un simple entretien, machine, etc., for coordinated functioning: rear-wheel.... A straight-ahead position position for your type of vehicle vehicle or one with a weak or sagging spring! Utilisez DeepL Traducteur pour traduire instantanément textes et documents in which two or more will cause vehicle! And wheel offset of the steering axis inclination ( SAI ) angles in a straight line ``! Exhaustifs et parcourez des milliards de traductions en ligne when the car is coming out a... Traduire instantanément textes et documents de batterie, ou pour toute autre réparation d'ordre,.

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